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Detailing Exterior Walls in Minnesota

A GBA reader seeks an energy-efficient wall design that will be free of mold and last a long time

Posted on Oct 12 2015 by Scott Gibson

In Minnesota, Jeff Fredrickson is planning a new house, and his research has included lots of reading on the design and construction of exterior walls. His goals are twofold: a wall that will stay mold-free for decades, and one that is "somewhat energy efficient."

Starting at the inside, the wall would go like this: drywall, a polyethylene vapor barrier, JM Spider insulation in 2x6 stud walls, 1/2-inch plywood sheathingMaterial, usually plywood or oriented strand board (OSB), but sometimes wooden boards, installed on the exterior of wall studs, rafters, or roof trusses; siding or roofing installed on the sheathing—sometimes over strapping to create a rainscreen. , a water-resistive barrierSometimes also called the weather-resistive barrier, this layer of any wall assembly is the material interior to the wall cladding that forms a secondary drainage plane for liquid water that makes it past the cladding. This layer can be building paper, housewrap, or even a fluid-applied material. (Benjamin Obdyke HydroGap), fiber cement and stone veneer claddingMaterials used on the roof and walls to enclose a house, providing protection against weather. .

"Is this a good wall?" he asks in a Q&A post at GreenBuildingAdvisor.

Specifically, Fredrickson worries about condensation in this Climate Zone 6 wall, the potential hazards of volatile organic compounds in the insulation, and whether the blown-in Johns Manvillle Spider fiberglass insulation is really any better than plain old fiberglass batts.

That's the focus for this Q&A Spotlight.

First, skip the polyethylene

Although it was commonly used in exterior walls at one time, polyethylene is now regarded as a potential moisture trap in all but the coldest climates.

"The interior polyethylene is more likely to cause moisture problems than solve them, because it prevents your wall from drying to the interior during the summer," writes GBAGreenBuildingAdvisor.com senior editor Martin Holladay. "If you don't want mold, then don't install the interior poly (especially if there is any chance that the house will ever have air conditioning)."

Poly may present a higher-than-usual risk, Nate G. adds, if Fredrickson puts stone veneer right over the water-resistive barrier.

Holladay has the same misgivings about stone veneer on the exterior, telling Fredrickson, "Stone veneer over wood framing and plywood or OSB wall sheathing is probably the most problematic cladding ever invented. This type of cladding has more moisture-entry problems than any other. Lots of siding types are most likely to be free of moisture problems — including vinylCommon term for polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In chemistry, vinyl refers to a carbon-and-hydrogen group (H2C=CH–) that attaches to another functional group, such as chlorine (vinyl chloride) or acetate (vinyl acetate). siding and fiber-cement siding installed over a ventilated rainscreenConstruction detail appropriate for all but the driest climates to prevent moisture entry and to extend the life of siding and sheathing materials; most commonly produced by installing thin strapping to hold the siding away from the sheathing by a quarter-inch to three-quarters of an inch. gap."

The wall doesn't meet code minimum requirements

The plan has another fundamental weakness: It won't meet the insulation requirements of the 2012 International Residential Code. In Climate Zone 6, the IRCInternational Residential Code. The one- and two-family dwelling model building code copyrighted by the International Code Council. The IRC is meant to be a stand-alone code compatible with the three national building codes—the Building Officials and Code Administrators (BOCA) National code, the Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI) code and the International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) code. calls for a minimum R-valueMeasure of resistance to heat flow; the higher the R-value, the lower the heat loss. The inverse of U-factor. in walls of either 20+5 or 13+10, the first number referring to the cavity insulation between the studs and the second number to the R-value of continuous insulation over the wall sheathing.

"Spider has about the same performance as perfectly installed R-21 fiberglass batts, slightly lower performance than perfectly installed R-23 rock wool," Dana Dorsett adds. "But perfection is hard to get with batts — there are always some voids and compressions, whereas with Spider there are none."

When thermal bridgingHeat flow that occurs across more conductive components in an otherwise well-insulated material, resulting in disproportionately significant heat loss. For example, steel studs in an insulated wall dramatically reduce the overall energy performance of the wall, because of thermal bridging through the steel. is factored in, Dorsett says, the whole-wall R-value with Spider insulation would be about 15 — not especially high-performance.

To get the wall performance up to IRC minimums, he suggests adding rigid rock wool sheathing in the masonry cavity, which also would keep the sheathing warmer and drier. A layer of insulation 1 1/4 inch thick would be enough, although there's no harm in going thicker.

When it comes to choosing an appropriate amount of insulation, Dorsett adds, there's a good case for exceeding code minimums.

"Taking it higher than IRC minimums is still financially rational on a life-cycle basis in most cases," he writes. "An inch of rigid rock wool on the exterior of the sheathing would improve both the mold resistance and the energy performance of that wall, and would also be pretty close to the IRC code-min. At 2 inches with the exterior rock wool you'd be in the ‘somewhat energy efficient’ range by almost anybody's definition, though far from superinsulated, and well behind even what would it would take to be ‘Net Zero Ready’ in your climate."

And whatever Fredrickson decides on the insulation front, Dorsett says, "the cheapest wall performance you can buy is to meticulously air seal the house."

Making the wall more vapor-permeable

Dorsett has two other suggestions, both of which would enhance the wall's ability to dry.

The first is to replace the plywood sheathing, with a perm rating of 0.5 to 1, with structural 3/4-inch asphalted fiberboard, which has a perm rating of 5 perms when absolutely dry but 15 or more when humidity levels are high.

"Fiberboard is less susceptible to moisture than plywood and lets moisture out, which makes the whole assembly more moisture-resilient," he says. "It's also about R-2, which means you can back off to 1 inch on the rigid rock wool and still hit IRC code-minimum performance."

In addition, Dorsett says, a smart vapor retarder such as MemBrain or Intello Plus is a class II vapor retarder when dry, with a perm rating of less than 1, but open to vapor when the relative humidity in the cavity becomes high enough.

"Alternatively, 1/2-inch plywood or OSB also behave as smart vapor retarders, and if you put it on the interior under the gypsum it becomes the structural sheathing, allowing you to use thinner (less-structural) fiberboard sheathing facing the masonry cavity," Dorsett adds. "Most fiberboard is sufficiently structural to use as exterior sheathing on its own, but it's not as strong as CDX or OSB."

With fiberboard sheathing and a smart vapor retarder on the interior, the wall would be able to dry in either direction, he says, adding, "With 1-perm CDX and 6-mil poly (about 0.05 perm), the winter moisture drives are controlled, but it has very limited drying capacity, and has more moisture-susceptible sheathing in the colder/wetter side of the assembly."

Don't get stuck on a 2x6 wall

The builder Fredrickson has chosen uses 2x6 construction in all the houses he builds, but it's by no means the best or only choice.

"I think that the reason that a couple of GBA readers are urging you to reconsider your fixation on 2x6 walls is that one good option for cold-climate builders is a double stud wall consisting of two parallel exterior walls framed with 2x4s," Holladay says. "This gives your insulation contractor plenty of room for lots of insulation."

If he is set on framing with 2x6s, Holladay adds, it would be better to use a continuous layer of insulation, typically rigid foam, on the outside of the sheathing.

Adds Nate G, "There are many, many ways to build good walls. If for some odd reason you have to use 2x6s, you need to make sure your walls' drainage is as good as possible. That means 1/2-inch or deeper air channels behind the cladding, it means selecting a cladding that's not a moisture reservoir (e.g. stucco, brick, or stone) unless it's a freestanding wall physically separated from the rest of the wall such that bulk moisture can easily drain down through the bottom."

Our expert's opinion

Here's what GBA technical director Peter Yost has to say:

If you want a “wall that stays mold-free for decades and one that is somewhat energy-efficient," this is what I'd recommend:

To start, consider your site context. For durable building enclosures, matching design features to exposures — wind, surface water associated with slopes, ground water associated with water table depth — is key to durability.

Be anal about the continuity of your air barrierBuilding assembly components that work as a system to restrict air flow through the building envelope. Air barriers may or may not act as a vapor barrier. The air barrier can be on the exterior, the interior of the assembly, or both.. You won’t get that with any of the materials or systems mentioned in your assembly so I just want to make sure that this is an element of your durable, energy-efficient building enclosure.

Install your stone veneer with a system like LathNet. Free-draining, vented systems for adhered masonry veneers are not inexpensive, but they are critical for “mold-free walls lasting for decades.”

The JM Spider insulation system works just fine and is a standout for its overall environmental profile. See this blog by my colleague Alex Wilson.

Given that I am not exactly sure what “somewhat energy-efficient” means, I am going to assume that you don’t have the appetite for a truly high-performance system like the double-stud wall. But in your climate, honoring the next point below on drying potential, you should strongly consider continuous rigid exterior insulation (for how much you should use, see Calculating the Minimum Thickness of Rigid Foam Sheathing).

Design your wall assembly to dry in at least one direction. You certainly don’t need a polyethylene Class I vapor retarder. And what type of vapor retarder you need depends on your insulation strategy (see above) and just what type of wintertime interior relative humidity you expect to maintain in your home (which also will depend on what type of mechanical ventilation system you use).

Locate your HydroGap WRB to the interior of your exterior rigid insulation. Warming this complex organic material (the WRB) will improve its durability. Also, consider the location/plane of your window installation as it lines up — or not — with the location of your WRB.

Consider the moisture-sensitivity of your structural sheathing in the overall context of your assemblies. There are a lot of variables here — whether or not you do indeed install all of your claddings with a ventilated rainscreen; what type if any vapor retarder you use; whether or not your dedicated water control layer — WRB and flashings — is truly continuous. Frankly, I consider plywood’s variable vapor permeability compared to any OSB as a plus, but I also think that higher-quality OSB (such as Huber’s Advantech), with drying potential to the interior, will remain “mold-free for decades.”


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  1. Johns Manville

1.
Oct 14, 2015 5:30 PM ET

Stone Veneer Air Gap Membranes
by Kohta Ueno

An excellent solution for the stone veneer problem (**especially** if you are considering a more vapor-open sheathing such as fiberboard) would be a vapor impermeable air gap membrane, such as Cosella Dorken Delta-Dry. It is a "waffle pattern" plastic mat: when moisture passes through the sheathing and the WRB/housewrap (outward drying of the wall), it is ventilated up and out through the channels. However, it completely blocks any inward drive issues from the adhered veneer--basically "decoupling" the wet concrete sponge outside of your wood frame wall.

Cosella Dorken DELTA®-DRY
http://www.cosella-dorken.com/bvf-ca-en/products/rainscreen/products/dry...

John Straube and his crew did side by side tests up in their Canadian exposure site looking at the effectiveness of this product.

PA-0902: Adhered Veneers and Inward Vapor Drives: Significance, Problems and Solutions
http://buildingscience.com/documents/published-articles/pa-adhered-venee...


2.
Oct 15, 2015 5:17 AM ET

Response to Kohta Ueno
by Martin Holladay

Kohta,
Thanks for your excellent suggestion.

In my 2011 article, All About Water-Resistive Barriers, I included lots of information on Cosella Dorken Delta-Dry.

In that article, I noted, "While most housewraps depend on vapor diffusion to help walls dry, Delta-Dry depends upon air movement (ventilation) between the Delta-Dry and the wall sheathing. Although Delta-Dry is as vapor-impermeable as 6-mil poly, its grooves allow air to move behind it, carrying moisture away from the sheathing. ... Unlike such conventional WRBs as asphalt felt or Tyvek, however, Delta-Dry has air channels that provide a capillary break and a rainscreen between the siding and the sheathing, facilitating the drainage of liquid water. Delta-Dry also beats felt or Tyvek when it comes to handling solar-driven moisture; since Delta-Dry is vapor-impermeable, it is a total barrier to inward solar vapor drive."


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