Image Credit: Image #1, #4 and #8: Martin Holladay This 28-year-old photo shows Adam Cohen and his wife Liz in front of their off-grid home.
Image Credit: Image #2 and #3: Adam Cohen Don't install the windows! Adam Cohen tests the air leakage rate of his buildings three times: first, when the building is sheathed but windows are not yet installed; then after window installation; and finally after mechanical and electrical rough-ins are complete. He calls this approach the "Duclos Method." Chris Corson is a builder in Belfast, Maine. Chris Corson installed a layer of R-54 EPS foam under the foundation slab of the Knox Passivhaus.
Image Credit: Image #5, #6, and #7: Chris Corson According to Chris Corson, Celotex has sold its fiberboard business to Blue Ridge Fiberboard, and all manufacturing has moved to Virginia. As a result, Celotex fiberboard is no longer available in New England. Instead of using Celotex, Corson ended up using fiberboard from a Quebec company called Building Products of Canada. As part of a deep-energy retrofit of his own house, Chris Corson stripped off the old siding and roofing, and then covered the entire house with peel-and-stick membrane. Roger Normand, Lynn Normand, and Chris Briley. Roger and Lynn hired Chris to design their new home in Saco, Maine. Roger and Lynn Normand have been making progress at their construction site. Here is a recent photo of their new home, dubbed EdgewaterHaus.
Image Credit: Image #9: Roger Normand
A group of about 130 designers, builders, and Passivhaus fans gathered at U Mass Boston on October 27, 2012 to attend a one-day conference organized by Passive House New England.
It’s impossible for this report to be comprehensive, unfortunately, and I won’t be able to do justice to all of the conference events. My report will focus on three speakers: Adam Cohen, Chris Corson, and Roger Normand. Among the presentations not reported on here:
- A presentation by architect Jesse Thompson of Portland, who showed what specification changes would be necessary to nudge several run-of-the-mill energy-efficient projects into Passivhaus territory;
- A presentation by Stephanie Horowitz of Zero Energy Design, who described a residential project in Brookline; and
- A presentation by Laura Briggs that focused on the EmPowerHouse, a Solar Decathlon entry.
Adam Cohen urges clients to aim for Passivhaus
Adam Cohen is a designer at a firm called Structures Design/Build in Roanake, Virginia. In recent years, he has had a surprising degree of success convincing residential and commercial clients to build to the Passivhaus standard.
Cohen opened his presentation with some jokes about his corner of Virginia. “I work in the Bible Belt South,” said Cohen. “Right before I came up to this conference, my Obama yard signs were stolen. Someone suggested that I call this session, ‘Passivhaus in redneck country: Building for people who don’t care about the environment.’”
Cohen then shared an affectionate look back at his countercultural roots. “When I was 25, I was a hippie and an idealist,” he said. He showed us a photo of a house he built with his wife (see Image #2, below). “The house cost $3 a square foot. We lived on a commune. Back then, we were building off-grid houses. We were trying to live off the land. If we had 4 or 6 Arco solar panels, that was a screaming big PV system. We used gas appliances, wood appliances, gas refrigerators. We built thermosyphon solar hot water systems. We built hydraulic ram pumps out of PVC. Why did we go do all of this? Because we were poor hippies.”
Cohen has come a long way. He is now a successful designer of single-family homes and commercial buildings.
Here are more quotes from Cohen’s presentation:
On blower door testing: “We follow what I call the Duclos method of airtightness — named after Mike Duclos. First, we sheathe the entire building — right over the window and door openings, except for one door. Then we test it with a blower door, and fix any leaks we find. Then we install our windows and test again. Then we fix the window leaks. Finally, we do the mechanical rough-ins, and then test again and seal again.”
On commercial kitchens: “A commercial kitchen range hood in a Passivhaus? It can be done, but it’s not fun.”
Airtightness requires attention to details: “Liquid-applied air barriers are now standard for many commercial projects. We’re already doing a lot of this stuff, but we are doing it wrong. Why should we pay more just to do it right?”
How long is the payback period? “As soon as someone asks me about payback, I change the subject. I want to talk about return on investment.”
The advantages of design/build: “The traditional delivery system — with a separate architect, designer, owner, contractor, and subcontractors — is like an octopus with no brain. Design/build — integrated delivery — is a better system.”
Americans won’t accept hot interiors: “Europeans accept a wider indoor comfort range than Americans. But you can’t have overheating in America. We must meet the expectations of regular WalMart-going Americans — not just you and me.”
On PHPP: “There are tons of things in the PHPP that I don’t agree with. I know that a building doesn’t work with the PHPP defaults. Energy modeling is 25% science, 25% experience, 25% art, and 25% voodoo.”
Chris Corson describes two projects in Maine
Regular GBA readers are already familiar with Chris Corson’s work. Corson first gained national attention for designing and building an affordable Passivhaus in Knox, Maine. (For more information on that project, see Striving for Passivhaus Affordability and Cold-Climate Passivhaus Construction Costs.) Corson usually specifies triple-glazed Intus windows for his projects.
At the Boston conference, Corson shared photos and construction anecdotes from the Knox Passivhaus job as well as from a deep-energy retrofit project at his own house in Belfast. (GBA published a few photos Corson’s deep-energy retrofit project in an article called A Real Chainsaw Retrofit.)
Here are some quotes from Corson’s presentation:
On sub-slab insulation: “The Knox Passivhaus has R-54 sub-slab foam. Under the slab is a great place to hide insulation. It’s one aspect of a house that can’t be retrofitted.”
On space heating systems: “The house is heated with a single ductless minisplit, a Mitsubishi MUZ-FE12NA [outdoor unit] and a MSZ-FE12NA [indoor unit].”
On airtightness: “We blower-door tested the house 7 or 8 times. It ended up at 0.284 ach50.”
On the deep-energy retrofit project at his own house: “Before the retrofit, the house burned 1,100 or 1,200 gallons of oil per year for space heat and domestic hot water. We did a chainsaw retrofit, the method developed by Harold Orr and Rob Dumont. We cut the eaves off the house. We took a straight-up PERSIST approach, and wrapped the entire house with Ice & Water Shield. It was expensive. Then we installed 5.5 inches of polyiso to wrap the house. We bought the used polyiso from Insulation Depot. We used a lot of 8-inch Timberlock screws — 4,000 or 5,000 Timberlocks.”
On Lunos fans: “We installed eight Lunos ventilation fans — four pairs of fans. It’s a really cool device. It has a ceramic core for heat recovery. The fans cost $1,200 a pair, and they are quiet. We’ve lived in the house for nine months. The air quality is definitely better. The fans are performing better than expected.” (For more information on the Lunos ventilation fan, see European Products for Building Tight Homes.)
On fiberboard sheathing: “On some projects we’ve used high-perm fiberboard for exterior sheathing. It’s made in Canada, and it’s expensive. It worked; it did its job. But it’s difficult to work with. It’s hard to install. It’s dirty. It smells like asphalt. When we started installing the cellulose insulation, it really bellied out. Fortunately we caught the bellying before it became a big problem. We finished the job by watching it closely and babysitting the insulation contractor.”
On the new European membranes: “We’ve done homes without exterior sheathing using an exterior membrane system called Solitex Mento Plus. This stuff is waterproof and UV-resistant. It’s simple and fast to install, and clean to work with. It does require a considerable amount of strapping. You need battens and counter-battens to keep it from bowing out. Even with all those battens, there still is some bowing. We have also used membranes on a roof. We installed Solitex Mento 1000 as a sarking membrane over the roof trusses. It’s waterproof. Again, there is no exterior sheathing — just standing-seam metal roofing over the purlins. We did install OSB under the roof trusses as an air barrier, however.”
Roger Normand talks about his Passivhaus project in Maine
Roger Normand (like Chris Corson) is well known to regular GBA visitors. Roger and his wife Lynn are building a new custom home in Saco, Maine, and they are aiming to meet the Passivhaus standard. For the past several months, GBA has been publishing Roger’s blogs about his new home, which is still under construction.
Guided by architect Chris Briley and energy consultant Marc Rosenbaum, the Normands have been discovering the joys and complications inherent in most Passivhaus projects. Roger’s blogs describe the downs as well as the ups of building a new custom home.
At the October 27 conference in Boston, Roger Normand and Chris Briley took turns presenting information on the Normands’ new home. I’ve excerpted a few quotes from Roger Normand’s presentation below.
On fossil fuel: “I worked for the Department of Defense. Our energy policy is based on using the military to protect our energy supplies.”
On the Passivhaus standard: “I read a lot of things about designing high-performance homes. I stumbled onto LEED, and then I stumbled onto Passivhaus. I liked the intellectual rigor of the standard. I liked the fact that it was a performance metric. But I’ve discovered that we must pay a huge premium for high-performance windows and high-performance ventilation equipment. And you can’t count the output of your PV system toward meeting your Passivhaus goal, which doesn’t make sense to us.”
On appraisals: “If you’re building a house, you have to go to the bank. The bank wants an appraisal. We’ve learned that it ain’t easy. We’ve contacted three appraisers. They all professed to have green credentials. The first appraiser gave a value of zero for the energy efficiency features of our home. I went ballistic. Fortunately, the bank agreed with me. Finally, a different appraiser gave us credit based on the value of being net-zero for seven years. Why seven years? Well, that’s how long Americans usually stay in a house before they move. This is really a ‘no tickee, no laundry’ situation. People can’t afford energy features because the appraiser won’t put any value on it.” (For further discussion of this topic, see Roger Normand’s latest blog, Seeing Red on a Green Property Appraisal.)
On specifying windows: “Picking windows is not easy. We are stuck with going with European windows. We started with Pella windows, but their performance was not even close to what we needed. Picking windows is not intuitively obvious.”
On the bottom line: “It ain’t cheap going green. We’re going to end up at about $220 per square foot.”
A panel discussion featuring three old hippies
The last event of the day was a panel discussion moderated by Jesse Thompson, who introduced the featured speakers — Adam Cohen, Marc Rosenbaum, and me — as “three old hippies.”
Since I was sitting at a table in front of the crowd, I was unable to take notes, so I can’t report on what was said. Fortunately, there is a video of the panel discussion. Here is the first segment of the video:
Below are links to Part 2 and Part 3 of the panel discussion:
Martin Holladay’s previous blog: “Fans in the Attic: Do They Help or Do They Hurt?”