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Energy Solutions

Air-Source Heat Pumps

The Hallowell Acadia heat pump can operate at temperatures below 0 degrees and still perform significantly better than electric-resistance heat.

Last week’s column looked at efficient but also very expensive ground-source heat pumps; this week we’ll look at a less expensive option that’s becoming more common even in our climate: air-source heat pumps. Traditionally, air-source heat pumps have been an option mainly for more southern climates, because they have to extract heat from the outside air, and when it’s cold out their performance drops significantly.

However, a few things have changed. One is a relatively new type of air-source heat pump that’s optimized for cold climates. The Hallowell Acadia cold-climate heat pump, manufactured in Maine, is an advanced, two-stage heat pump. [Editor’s note: Hallowell has gone out of business, and this heat pump is no longer available.] This feature both allows the unit to work at much colder temperatures than conventional air-source heat pumps, and it boosts the efficiency—referred to as “coefficient of performance” with heat pumps.

While conventional air-source heat pumps essentially switch over to electric-resistance heating at temperatures much below 40 degrees, the Hallowell Acadia can operate at temperatures below 0 degrees and still perform significantly better than electric-resistance heat. Because these two-stage heat pumps are more complicated than conventional air-source heat pumps they’re more expensive—but it’s still a lot less expensive than ground-source heat pumps because trenching or drilling wells isn’t required.

The other technology that’s gaining popularity and has quite good performance in our climate is the “mini-split” heat pump that has been popularized by the Japanese companies Sanyo, Mitsubishi, and Daikin. Like central air conditioners, these are “split” systems that have an outside compressor and an indoor evaporator coil/air handler. A tube carries refrigerant between the indoor and outdoor units.

Because they do away with costly and space-hogging duct systems, these units are often called “ductless mini-splits.” Refrigerant lines also move thermal energy more efficiently than ducts. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that ductless systems lose 1%–5% of their thermal energy through distribution, compared with 30% distribution losses for ducted systems.

Mini-splits often come with variable-speed compressors, improving energy efficiency. In typical air-conditioning systems, both compressors and air-handling units cycle between off and full capacity, with no settings in between. In most mini-splits, both the compressor and the fan coil are controlled by inverters, which can turn the compressor on at a low amperage and adjust the capacity as needed to meet actual loads. This improves system efficiency and durability as well as occupant comfort.

Most mini-splits can provide heat fairly effectively at temperatures as low as 0 degrees, Fahrenheit, with one Mitsubishi model able to work at outside temperatures as low as minus-13 degrees F. On the interior, most mini-splits are mounted high on a wall and offer one convenient system for blowing either heated or cooled air into the space.

Although more expensive than conventional central air systems, ductless mini-splits make up for that to some extent with lower costs to install, and their efficiency should make them less expensive to operate. If you already have a clean-burning, efficient heating system, and have an air-conditioning system you’re happy with, there aren’t many reasons for you to consider ductless mini-splits, or a cold-climate heat pump, for that matter.

But if you’re looking to switch from a less efficient system, and you have some need for cooling as well as heating, ductless mini-splits or cold-climate heat pumps could provide a convenient, relatively cost-effective, efficient option. As I’ve written at other times in this column, electric heating and cooling can also make sense in a super-efficient off-the-grid home—another case where these systems are worth considering.

Not all local heating contractors offer these newer systems. For information and help locating a dealer, visit websites of Mitsubishi and Sanyo.

Editor’s note: For information on obtaining parts and service for Hallowell heat pumps, see Hallowell International and Acadia Heat Pump Resources.


  1. Dave | | #1

    Re: Mini splits and cold temp heat pump
    Hi Alex,
    Great ideas and new technology! Any idea if any of these units can work in cold climates like Edmonton, Alberta? Are they available in Canada? What are the actual cost vs. convensional nat. gas force air furnace.
    Can you elaborate on your idea for electic heating for a super insulated house, can this work in Edmonton?
    Thanks for any info you can provide. Dave

  2. Tom | | #2

    Have you had a chance to try
    Have you had a chance to try these air source heat pumps? They look pretty good but I haven't heard much about them so if you know anything about them that would be great.

    Thanks, Tom.

  3. mike | | #3

    Mini splits and cold temp heat pump
    I have a Mitsibushi city muti installed heating a 3000 sq ft home. total btus =54k. No problem heating to 0 degrees.

  4. SKy7wzWNcQ | | #4

    Crossover point between Mitsubisi and oil fired forced hot water
    I have just installed a Mitsubishi AC/heat pump system in my 10 year old well insulated home. I have a crown boiler running at about 80%. I get it maintained annually. I want to know at what outside temp the heat pump becomes more expensive to run. I can calculate the crossover if I know the COP vrs outdoor temp. My house is very tight. I live near the shore in RI.

    Thank you

  5. GBA Editor
    Martin Holladay | | #5

    Response to Michael
    Mitsubishi makes many different models of heat pumps. Some operate efficiently without electric resistance down to -13 degrees F. Others don't operate at cold temperatures.

    To answer you question, you need to investigate:
    - The COP of your heat pump
    - The outdoor temperature at which your heat pump switches to electric resistance
    - Your electricity rate (in $ / kWh)
    - The cost of your fossil fuel (natural gas, propane, or fuel oil -- whatever your boiler uses)

  6. Alex Wilson | | #6

    Cost per million Btus of delivered heat
    I think you'll find this calculator, which we created at BuildingGreen, helpful in your analysis. You can compare two different heating options (heat pump and oil) by specifying efficiencies, $ per gallon, $ per kWh, and distribution efficiency. The trick number, as Martin suggests, will be the efficiency (COP) of the heat pump, which varies at different temperatures. It would be helpful if you could get from Mitsubishi a table showing the COP at different temperatures. If you run a bunch of comparisons using our Fuel Cost Calculator, keeping everything the same except the heat pump COP, I think you'll get a good sense of when it makes sense to switch over from electric heat pump to oil--and vise-versa--given the current fuel costs. Note that the distribution efficiencies may differ for the two fuels; be sure to enter your best guesses about that. Here's a link to the calculator (use the "add another fuel" feature to compare oil and heat pump):

  7. Kj_Feinberg | | #7

    If you’re looking for flexible heating and cooling options for individual rooms in your home, mini-splits can be the perfect fit.

    Ductless systems tend to be more well-known in areas of the countries with more buildings that lack central heating and cooling. The majority of homes in the Midwest have ductwork throughout the home. As a result, many homeowners aren’t as aware of this option.

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