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Green Building News

What’s Behind Soaring Lumber Prices?

Rising demand, mill closures, Covid, and a Canadian insect problem all help push prices upward

Prices for panel products and framing lumber have hit record highs. Market experts point to a variety of causes and say sharp reductions are unlikely in the near future. Photo courtesy Scott Gibson.

Like many other parts of the U.S. economy, the lumber industry saw prices fall in the spring of 2020 as the COVID-19 pandemic took the country by the throat. Sawmill prices for framing lumber started to fall in the second week of March, and a month later had dropped to their lowest level since the previous summer.

Then something weird started to happen.

Despite ongoing business closures and rising unemployment, lumber prices began to climb. The widely watched Framing Lumber Composite Price index published by Random Lengths bottomed out at $348 on April 10, 2020, and other than an eight-week dip late in the year, it has been on the rise ever since. By the third week of April this year, the index had hit $1188 per 1000 board feet, a record.

Random Lengths’ Structural Panel Composite showed a similar pattern, rising from $349 per 1000 sq. ft. in April 2020 to $1371 a year later.

The unprecedented run-up in prices has affected everything from dimensional framing lumber to building products made with wood components, such as windows and doors. Increases have added nearly $36,000 to the cost of an average new home, according to the National Association of Home Builders. A recent NAHB newsletter said the total cost to a builder for all lumber and manufactured lumber products to build an average single-family home was $16,927 in April 2020, and $48,136 a year later—that’s an increase of 184%.

Higher costs have put home ownership out of reach for 5.5 million Americans, NAHB says, while higher multifamily projects translate into steeper rents for newly built apartments. Builders working with fixed-price contracts are biting their nails over what comes next.

“Of course, affordability challenges for home buyers and renters with modest incomes are even more challenging than these lumber-driven effects imply, as prices for other building materials are also on the rise,” NAHB’s Eye on Housing said.

A convergence of many factors

Rising prices can be attributed to a variety of factors, according to Random Lengths Editor Shawn Church. In a telephone call, Church said everything from labor shortages and restraints in the supply of timber to low mortgage rates and a surge in remodeling have played a part.

“Demand has been driven by various factors going back to last April as the pandemic emerged,” Church said. “When it hit, the industry cut production sharply, anticipating a major setback in demand. But that didn’t really happen. And one reason was that the industry was declared essential and construction was allowed to continue with only a few interruptions in a few cities and regions. The industry cutbacks really overshot what was the true demand. Demand really proved to be resilient.”

Stuck at home because of the pandemic, consumers took their government relief checks along with money they had saved because of their inability to travel and poured it into their homes, he said. The result was an unprecedented run on building materials at home improvement stores. At the same time, many Americans who had been living in cities in order to enjoy short commutes to work suddenly found themselves telecommuting. They realized they didn’t have to live in a city apartment or condo and could instead move to the suburbs where they had more elbow room. That meant more buyers for single-family homes.

The problem was that some mills shut down early in the pandemic had not reopened, while lumber supplies in three out of four major North American growing regions remained tight. In western Canada, Church said, supplies were squeezed by a decades-long infestation of mountain pine beetles (you can read more about that insect problem in this article from The Atlantic). In the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. a lot of timber was on federal land and off-limits to loggers, leaving that region essentially a privately owned timber base. Only in the southern pine region of the southeast U.S. are timber stocks on the rise.

Even the echoes of the Great Recession of 2008 are in play. When that housing bubble burst, the lumber industry tooled its mills to run at a lower level or production, and it just hasn’t managed to catch up.

“Really, on the supply side the industry milling capacity has not risen to an adequate level to meet the level of demand we see today,” Church said. “Demand for housing has really catapulted from a level of a year ago. At the start of 2020 we were at 1.2 million, 1.3 million housing units and we’ve jumped to 1.6 or 1.7 million now. The industry simply doesn’t have the capacity to supply this level of demand.”

Dustin Jalbert, senior economist with Fastmarket RISI, said by telephone that lumber producers last spring looked at unemployment figures and how sectors of the economy were faltering. They thought back to the housing fallout in 2005-2009 and acted accordingly.

“They curtailed and cut production pretty heavily in April and May, thinking that demand would fall, and that never happened,” he said. “Instead, it sort of surged. A lot of wholesalers and distributors sold off their inventory, liquidated. So, the whole supply chain is really, really lean for wood and it’s creating all this chaos and volatility. Basically, demand is the opposite of what everyone thought.”

Builders react to tough conditions

How have builders responded? NAHB took a look at this question last month as it conducted its NAHB/Wells Fargo Housing Market Index survey. The most common reaction, from 47% of those responding, was to include a price escalation clause in sales and construction contracts. Another 29% pre-ordered lumber, and an additional 22% sought lumber price guarantees from their suppliers. Just 13% of the respondents said they were doing nothing.

While builders often were successful in getting suppliers not to bump prices, most guarantees went for less than a month; 57% of price guarantees were for 29 or fewer days. Only 8% of builders reporting that suppliers held prices for as long as three months.

“Neither guaranteeing prices for a month nor any of the other practices cited above completely compensates for the historic surge and volatility in lumber prices the industry has experienced recently,” the NAHB report said. “Price escalation clauses seem to offer some protection for builders, but don’t prevent them from losing sales to customers unable to afford the escalated house prices.”

Pioneer Builders, a spec builder of high-end homes in Washington State, found that buying materials well ahead of when they will be needed has helped. In addition to working with its lumber supplier over the years, the company last year bought enough lumber to build a house and had it delivered on the “off chance” that there would be shortages down the road, said company vice president Bryan Uhler.

“That was a good move as far as lumber prices go, although we didn’t see the possible shortages here,” Uhler said in an email. “Now we’re doing the same thing— buying a house of material ahead of the supply shortages that we may face. As long as fiscal policy remains as it is and the Fed stays on their track, prices will not come down, they will only get worse.”

Uhler said the disciplined business practices of his father, who started the firm in 1978, have helped put Pioneer in a position where advance purchases are possible. In the past, the company has used a fixed-price contract with allowances. At times of high inflation, framing lumber could be one of those allowance items. In general, Uhler suggests that builders communicate clearly with customers about how much materials cost.

“We also maintain a steady pace,” he added, “regardless of what the market is doing. We don’t ramp up when sales are strong. I stay very disciplined on waiting for a house to be complete before listing it. Then I have costs in and make sure they’re covered. If a person has high-interest lending, they can go under very quickly.”

Not all builders are in the position to buy a house worth of lumber and put it away, and homeowners facing quickly rising home costs may be priced out of the market. With those worries in mind, a group of 36 industry groups in March appealed to U.S. Commerce Secretary Gina Raimondo to look into the lumber supply chain, identify the causes for rising prices, and “seek immediate remedies that will increase production.”

Those signing onto the letter included a diverse range of interests, from the American Gas Association and the Independent Electrical Contractors to the Mortgage Bankers Association and the National Housing Trust. They argued that housing could be a bright spot for the economy, but because of increased housing demand and unprecedented activity by DIYers many builders are experiencing lumber shortages and delivery delays.

“Home builders and construction firms that have signed fixed-price contracts are forced to absorb these crippling increases in materials prices and costly delays in deliveries; there is a significant risk that many of these firms will be forced out of business,” the letter said. “To the extent they are able to pass on their additional costs, both single- and multifamily housing becomes less affordable. Other projects will no longer be economically viable, which undercuts the availability of new housing supply and further jeopardizes affordability.”

Some builders change their habits

Higher prices have prompted some builders to rethink the way they build houses. That’s evident in this Q&A thread at GBA launched by a question and comment from Steve Knapp in mid-March.

“Lumber prices are crazy at the moment,” Knapp wrote. “Standard ZIP is around $50 a sheet in some areas. So I was wondering how builders are adjusting. Are you moving to other materials such as glass-fiber sheathing, which seems to be a cheaper alternative to ZIP or exterior plywood?”

The question solicited dozens of replies (58 at last count). Malcolm Taylor, for example, suggested that more builders would start adding bracing to walls and eliminate sheathing altogether. That wouldn’t be permitted in seismic zones, but some production builders already are doing that.

“I’m in the middle of framing two 900-sq.-ft. commercial workshops that rely on let-in bracing and use horizontal strapping for the walls and roofs,” Taylor said. “That is saving about $7000.”

Some suggested insulating concrete forms might start to look more appealing as lumber prices rise, even if foam and concrete have higher environmental price tags.

There also were comments about the possibility of shortages in other areas. Zephyr7, for instance, said the electrical supply house that he deals with is worried about the availability of copper wire this summer. His lumberyard thinks pressure-treated lumber will be in short supply “as everyone spends stimulus money to build decks again.”

“My electrical fabricator is telling me they are having a difficult time sourcing all kinds of parts, and that their steel suppliers won’t hold prices for even 24 hours on quotes—and these are big commercial accounts with decades of history,” Zephyr7 added. “My primary generator supplier quoted me a 15-week lead time for a 150-kW unit about two weeks ago, and as of yesterday, that is now a 20-week lead time. Many residential generators are back ordered through this fall.”

And then there was this comment from Kye Ford: “I have solved the crazy increase in lumber prices by not building. There is only so much I can pass onto a future homeowner, and most of the price increases will have to come out of my bottom line. It’s too risky to build specs right now.”

Where will it end?

Uhler, like Church, has seen ups and downs in the market before. “We’ve also been in business since 1978,” Uhler wrote, “so we’ve been through the booms and busts. The boom always leads to a bust.”

That may be the case, but Church doesn’t see anything in the immediate future that’s going to change the upward pressure on lumber prices. Although he’s clear that Random Lengths is not in the prognostication business, interest rates are at historically low levels and nothing in the economy appoints to a slackening of demand for housing and lumber.

“The only thing I know is that in 30 years of covering these markets is that they do come down,” he said. “It’s usually a number of things that incrementally change the supply-demand balance and these record runs we’ve seen over the years they do tip over the top and prices do come down. This has been an unprecedented run but I have no doubt it’s going to come down. It always does. What goes up will come down. But nobody has the crystal ball to say when.”

Lumber production in the Southeast is a bright spot, and Jalbert thinks that softwood coming in from central Europe and parts of Scandinavia will help relieve some supply shortfalls. But over the short term, the market fundamentals that have driven up prices are not likely to change dramatically.

“My best guess right now is that in the next few months we are going to see prices continue to rise,” he said. “I do think when you get into the latter part of summer and into fall, seasonal demand will start to trickle down, and buying by distributors will slow down. That will be the beginning of a price correction. But I don’t think we’re coming back to $300 or $400 per 1000 board feet, at least not in the next year or two.”

Scott Gibson is a contributing writer at Green Building Advisor and Fine Homebuilding magazine.


  1. Expert Member

    Thanks Scott, I've listened to scattered reports detailing individual factors driving the increase, but this is the first time I've read a comprehensive overview of the whole situation. I sure hope real estate prices fall when material prices come down, even though the two aren't directly connected.

  2. jj1 | | #2

    Hi Scott: wonder if it might be possible to substitute steel studs instead of wood, for framing interior walls only (of course steel is not suitable for exterior wall framing because of its inferior thermal bridging characteristic)? Commercial building specialist crews are familiar with using steel studs. To be fair: steel prices have been rising during the past year, also.

    1. Expert Member
      MALCOLM TAYLOR | | #3


      As a percentage of the lumber and wood-based sheet goods used on a house, the interior walls represent such a small amount I'm not sure the extra complexity would be worth the savings.

  3. user-1140531 | | #4

    As the construction materials industry now sells a restricted supply at higher prices, are they making more or less money than before?

  4. mark_rob | | #5

    Good detailed article, but for US buyers, you forgot to mention the softwood lumber tariffs on wood coming from Canada

  5. gozags | | #6

    Futures are way high, meaning it'll still cost a lot for some time.

    My project is finalizing and I am looking at a few things to reduce the lumber cost.

    One idea is 2x6 framing. OSB ($75 per in my area), air sealing, fiberglass batts or maybe Rockwool.

    Second idea is inset shear panels (keeping the outer surface plane the same) in the appropriate areas (IRC 2018). Then cover the entire surface area with rigid foam.

    Drew it out, not counting the bay insulation on the interior costs or 2x6 lumber - which will be used in either scenario - I can do conventional OSB (maybe ply) across the whole outer skin - a conventional sheathing job for around $4700 in materials. With inset shear panels AND the entirety of the outside sheathed in rigid foam (R7.5 to meet local codes) I can SAVE $2350 in materials.

    Add that to the building performance, seems like a no brainer.

  6. DavidDrake | | #7

    Breaking ground on a small project next week--like Scott Cotter above, I've been trying to reduce lumber costs. First thing to go was the planned double stud wall. Adding a 2X4 wall to the 2x6 bearing wall (not including insulation) would have been about double the cost of 4" EPS continuous exterior foam. Next was replacing continuous OSB sheathing with 1/2" plywood brace panels, designed using APA's online calculator. I'll use 1.5" EPS for the first layer of foam over the bracing panels instead of 2" to bring everything into plane at the final exterior foam surface.

    Next was ordering furring strips and board and batten siding from a little local mill--much cheaper than graded material. Plus, it turns out the local building department is okay with using locally milled, ungraded 5/8" x 12" fir boards for roof deck instead of plywood, and will allow asphalt shingles as long as gaps between boards are less than 1/4". That alone saves $1000 vs. a plywood deck.

    All in all, even with these cost-cutting measures, I figure inflated materials will add $2500-3000 to the project (a two-story building with 600 SF footprint, garage/office below with ADU above.). Not ideal, but not enough for me to put off building hoping for a price drop next year.

  7. gozags | | #8

    Similar projects - garage with ADU. A little over 700sqft on the first and second, the ADU on the second has a max size of 600sqft, but I think the city will let me skip the interior staircase to the second level from counting towards the 600, so it should play out OK.

    On your shear panels, you are not looking to do inset panels, instead sheathing over with two different foam layer thicknesses to bring them onto the same plane?

    1. DavidDrake | | #12

      Hi Sean,
      Sorry for the late reply--it's been a bit of whirlwind the last week or so, getting permits, ordering materials, renting equipment, etc. Finished excavation today--after years of puttering around with planning, the project's finally happening.

      Shear panels: correct, two different foam thicknesses rather than inset panels. Sacrificing a bit of R-value in area over the panels, but it's easier to wrap my head around that detail than insetting the panels.

      Your user name is 'GoZags'? Are you in or near Spokane by chance? If so, I'm just a little south of you. Also 600 SF ADU limit, but I'm pretty sure my city counts the interior stair.

  8. geoffpritchard | | #9

    I'm still struggling with this explanation. So mills dialed back production in Mar 2020 in anticipation of a slowdown but then were considered essential as was construction and we're seeing the result a year later? The mills here are chocked full if timber and have been running full shifts since last spring/summer. This is starting to smell like price fixing to me.

    1. JC72 | | #10

      You'd have to look at the rate of residential construction. What you'll see is a "V" shaped recovery. Housing starts plummeted in 2020 which meant existing work continued but new starts lagged behind and then re-bounded to pre-covid numbers in a matter of weeks as 2020 demand was pushed out to 2021.

  9. mikeolder | | #11

    Price manipulation!
    Take a look at this video.

  10. dacieheral | | #13

    The increase in lumber prices is also associated with the coronavirus pandemic. The closure of borders and restrictions within the regions led to the fact that people began to spend money spend on construction and repairs. Moreover, stores selling goods for repair have increased several times. Therefore, I purchase Available in Twelve Vibrant Colors Plastic Lumber for my company. Fortunately, the situation is improving now. Prices for plywood and boards are falling. I think the situation will normalize by the end of winter.

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