Not all duct design manuals are created green
Manual D is about comfort, not energy efficiency. Its requirement in LEEDLeadership in Energy and Environmental Design. LEED for Homes is the residential green building program from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). While this program is primarily designed for and applicable to new home projects, major gut rehabs can qualify. -H makes green certification too expensive to justify the benefit.
I've been building solar and green for 30 years. I have built homes that Energy StarLabeling system sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and the US Department of Energy for labeling the most energy-efficient products on the market; applies to a wide range of products, from computers and office equipment to refrigerators and air conditioners. certify at 76% more efficient than code and score gold on our North Carolina Green Building Program as well as NAHB’s green building program, but I have never built a house that would qualify for even basic LEED-H certification. It doesn't seem likely that I will unless I get a client who specifically requests the LEED-H program over the alternatives. "LEED-H" stands for the United States Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Homes program. The reason why my homes don't typically qualify is because they use oversize ductwork with airflow controlled by butterfly dampers. The LEED-H program requires that airflow be controlled through implementation of the Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D duct design.
What's the difference between Manual D and Manual J?
There is some confusion in the market about the difference between Manual D, which sizes ducts to best match the equipment and needs of the rooms served, and Manual J, which sizes the equipment to match the actual projected load of the home (and is a basic minimum requirement of Energy Star and most green building standards, including the NAHB/ICC National Green Building StandardNational Green Building Standard Based on the NAHB Model Green Home Building Guidelines and passed through ANSI. This standard can be applied to both new homes, remodeling projects, and additions. .)
The Manual D duct-design standard forces HVAC(Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning). Collectively, the mechanical systems that heat, ventilate, and cool a building. installers to use 4" insulated flex for smaller rooms, 6" for medium-size rooms, and 8" for larger rooms. In my market its calculation and implementation adds significant cost to the HVAC system, especially on smaller, one-of-a-kind homes that LEED-H is hoping to encourage (the “top 25% of the most environmentally conscious builders” and all that). The Manual D standard is a good system and certainly worth rewarding but doesn’t really fit with the “mandatory minimum for green” in that it is more oriented toward optimizing comfort than saving energy, enhancing durability, or improving indoor air quality in the types of homes that would be reaching for LEED-H certification. It’s a comfort standard, not a green building standard.
The green home I'm building now won't pass LEED-H
We're building an aging-in-place home with a hybrid solar-propane radiant-floor heating & domestic hot-water system with a 15 SEER(SEER) The efficiency of central air conditioners is rated by the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio. The higher the SEER rating of a unit, the more energy efficient it is. The SEER rating is Btu of cooling output during a typical hot season divided by the total electric energy in watt-hours to run the unit. For residential air conditioners, the federal minimum is 13 SEER. For an Energy Star unit, 14 SEER. Manufacturers sell 18-20 SEER units, but they are expensive. heat pumpHeating and cooling system in which specialized refrigerant fluid in a sealed system is alternately evaporated and condensed, changing its state from liquid to vapor by altering its pressure; this phase change allows heat to be transferred into or out of the house. See air-source heat pump and ground-source heat pump. for AC and back-up heat that is better than 30% more efficient than code. The house scores gold in NAHB's Model Green Home Building Guidelines and North Carolina's Healthy Built Homes, but it will not qualify for basic LEED-H due to a "lack of comfort" in the AC design that will be used at most two months out of the year. If not for this requirement I think the house would likely be LEED-H Silver but I'm not going to pay to have the house scored when I know that it will fail because of this single requirement.
Seems like a missed opportunity to me.
NAHB is taking advantage of that opportunity
Last summer as we worked on the new NAHB-ICC National Green Building Standard the group discussed following LEED’s footsteps on this issue and decided that we shouldn't disqualify a house for a green rating because the bathrooms and bedrooms might occasionally be slightly less comfortable than the living room. So we awarded points for Manual D implementation but didn’t make it mandatory. The goal is to step lightly on the planet, not to assure that everybody is optimally comfortable at all times regardless of the additional cost.
—Michael Chandler is a home builder and master plumber in Mebane, North Carolina. His website is www.chandlerdesignbuild.com
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