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Installing Lap Siding Over Foam

Choosing the right furring strips is key to preserving a warranty for this engineered wood siding

Posted on Jul 10 2017 by Scott Gibson

William Costello is building a new house in southwest Virginia that will be framed with 2x6s and will include up to 2 inches of exterior rigid foam insulation. He plans on installing 3/4-inch thick plywood furring strips on top of the exterior foam, and then will side the house with LP SmartSide lap siding designed specifically for houses with 24-inch on-center framing.

It all sounded straightforward enough until Costello took a close look at the installation instructions from LP Building Products.

"I discovered that LP’s installation instructions specify 1.5-inch by 3.5-inch furring strips for foam greater than 1 inch in thickness," Costello explains in a Q&A post. "So I guess that would basically mean a 2x4 stud for every 2x6 stud in the wall. This is more material and expense than we had bargained for, and perhaps also more increase in wall thickness than we want for window installation."

He double-checked with LP to make sure that's what would be required to maintain his warranty, and indeed that's the requirement. There's a chance he could keep the thinner furring strips if he used fasteners for the siding that were long enough to bite into the 2x6 framing, a rep told him, but he'd need written approval. That would leave him with buying more expensive fasteners, so the option isn't necessarily very appealing.

Costello sees several options: install the siding according to LP specs; install it his way and hopes he never has to make a warranty claim; use 1 inch of polyisoPolyisocyanurate foam is usually sold with aluminum foil facings. With an R-value of 6 to 6.5 per inch, it is the best insulator and most expensive of the three types of rigid foam. Foil-faced polyisocyanurate is almost impermeable to water vapor; a 1-in.-thick foil-faced board has a permeance of 0.05 perm. While polyisocyanurate was formerly manufactured using HCFCs as blowing agents, U.S. manufacturers have now switched to pentane. Pentane does not damage the earth’s ozone layer, although it may contribute to smog. insulation instead of the 1 1/2-inch to 2-inch EPSExpanded polystyrene. Type of rigid foam insulation that, unlike extruded polystyrene (XPS), does not contain ozone-depleting HCFCs. EPS frequently has a high recycled content. Its vapor permeability is higher and its R-value lower than XPS insulation. EPS insulation is classified by type: Type I is lowest in density and strength and Type X is highest. and forget the vented rainscreen; or use extra long fasteners for the siding.

What's his best option?

Next time, plan ahead

Costello's dilemma is a good example of why better planning is important, replies GBAGreenBuildingAdvisor.com senior editor Martin Holladay.

"I don't know what stage of construction you are at, or whether you have purchased your siding yet," he writes. "But your case is a good example of the need to plan ahead: It's important not to select a siding until you're sure that the siding installation details will work for your planned wall assembly."

And what about the options Costello sees? Holladay would not recommend ignoring the manufacturer's installation instructions, in part because doing so amounts to a building code violation. And switching to polyiso insulation and skipping the rainscreen gap has its own problems.

"It's a very bad idea to butt the back of your siding tight to a layer of rigid foam," Holladay says. "You need the rainscreen gap for siding longevity."

Finally, he says, don't use the extra-long siding fasteners with the 1x4 furring unless you are able to get the OK from the manufacturer. "This approach sounds expensive because of the cost of the long screws," he adds.

Tinkering with the original plan

John Clark offers another suggestion: a product called Home Slicker made by Benjamin Obdyke. "Slicker can be applied to the insulation and then you can attach the siding directly to the studs through the foam," Clark says.

Costello wonders whether switching from LP SmartSide to fiber-cement siding or even vinylCommon term for polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In chemistry, vinyl refers to a carbon-and-hydrogen group (H2C=CH–) that attaches to another functional group, such as chlorine (vinyl chloride) or acetate (vinyl acetate). is worth considering. "Another option might be Hardie board," Costello says of siding made by James Hardie . "I think I’ve read that Hardie only requires 1/2 inch of furring strip 'bite' for the fastener, so our 3/4-inch furring would be more than sufficient. Not sure about 24-inch centers though. Worst case we’ll have to go to vinyl, which we really don’t like aesthetically, but I gather we’d be able to fasten it through even 2 inches of foam right to the stud, and still have air space behind of course."

Brendan Albano writes that fiber-cement siding over 1x4 furring at 24-inch centers is common. "You'll of course want to confirm that the manufacturer approves it and all that, but if there is a Hardie product that fits your aesthetic, that might be a good way to go without having to alter much else," he says.

Clark points out that vinyl siding doesn't need a rainscreen gap at all, and recalls a recommendation from the Building Science Corporation for a minimum gap of 1/4 inch for all siding other than vinyl. "Perhaps more is better," he adds, "but it's not necessary; 1x4 furring strips are just readily available."

Writing from New Jersey, Jonathan Lawrence says his own wall design included 3 inches of Roxul mineral wool, 2x4 furring, and Hardie Artisan siding.

"I recall that the furring and fastener requirements were the same for Roxul and foam," Lawrence says. "The Artisan siding is about twice the weight of regular Hardie, which required me to go with 2x4 furring because I needed 1.75 inches of fastening depth on both the furring and the stud. Had I gone with regular Hardie, I could have used 1x4's. We also spec'd 7.5-inch HeadLoK fasteners spaced 16 inches on-center vertically and horizontally."

LP weighs in

Matt Vrazel, who identifies himself as the North American Field Technical Manager for LP Building Products, directs Costello to a technical note on the topic, the same document GBA reader Douglas Epperly had flagged for Costello's attention.

"This document specifies using 1x4 southern pine with a specific gravity of at least 0.55 as furring strips," Vrazel says. "The average specific gravity across the four major species of southern pine (loblolly, longleaf, shortleaf, and slash) is about 0.55. The specific gravity is important because it is directly correlated with fastener withdrawal resistance. Therefore, using a furring strip with a lower specific gravity will have lower wind load resistance."

While the document requires furring strips every 16 inches for 36 Series Strand SmartSide products, 76 series SmartSide lap is rated for 24-inch on-center framing, he adds.

"You also mentioned using a 1-inch thick polyiso insulation board without furring strips and thus eliminating the rainscreen," Vrazel adds. "You can use this option in combination with a drainable housewrap between the insulation board and siding, which will create a drainage planePath that water would take over the building envelope. Concealed drainage-plane materials, such as building paper or housewrap, are designed to shed water that penetrates the building’s cladding. Drainage planes are installed to overlap in shingle fashion (weatherlap) so that water flows downward and away from the building envelope. behind the siding. With this design, you'll be able to fasten the 76 Series Strand SmartSide through the foam directly to the 24-inch on-center framing according to the installation instructions.

Specific gravity spec raises questions

The specific gravity of wood changes with its moisture content, replies Charlie Sullivan, so the specification Vrazel cites may needs some clarification.

"The same strip of southern yellow pine might be above 0.55 specific gravity at 14% moisture content and below 0.55 at 6% moisture content," Sullivan says. "Is your spec for a specific moisture content? And more generally, is your expectation that everyone should be measuring and checking that spec, or is it enough to be sure it's really southern yellow pine, and not some other generic unspecified SPF species that would have a lower specific gravity?"

Further, Steve Knapp points out, southern yellow pine may not be readily available in all parts of the country: "Would strips of CDX Douglas fir plywood work as a furring material?" he asks. "It supposedly has a specific gravity of .57."

Lawrence says that the specific gravity of furring came up in his research on using Hardie fiber cement siding. He took his cue from a technical bulletin on fasteners from Hardie, which required spruce-pine-fir furring with a specific gravity of 0.42 or greater.

"So back to Hardie and another technical report to determine the required fastener penetration and thereby the furring thickness," Lawrence adds. "It was almost a circular exercise, but now I know how they determine all of this. However, I discovered the easiest thing to do is call Tech Support, they already know the answer, so unless you really want to figure this out on your own, I would call LP tech support first."

Our expert's opinion

GBA technical director Peter Yost had this to say:

Even if you don’t have to comply with the International Residential Code, you might want to consult two tables from the 2015 IRC:

  • Table R703.15.1, "CladdingMaterials used on the roof and walls to enclose a house, providing protection against weather. Minimum Fastening Requirements for Direct Attachment Over Foam Plastic Sheathing to Support Cladding Weight." The table is reproduced below as Image #2.
  • Table R703.15.2, "Furring Minimum Fastening Requirements for Application Over Foam Plastic Sheathing to Support Cladding Weight." The table is reproduced below as Image #3.

The IRC provides comprehensive guidance on this whole issue:

(1) Following manufacturer requirements: You must follow any and all manufacturer installation instructions and requirements.

(2) Specific gravity of framing/furring: Footnote (a) in both tables for cladding and furring fastening requirements (Table R703.15.1 and Table R703.15.2) requires “spruce-pine-fir (SPF) or any wood species with a specific gravity 0.42 or greater in accordance with American Wood Council National Design Specification," which states the specific gravity for oven-dry moisture content.

(3) Using plywood for furring in place of spruce-pine-fir: Footnote (a) for Table R703.15.2 (see Image #2 below) states “…any wood species,” so it’s unclear if the code allows 3/4-inch plywood furring strips to be substituted for 1x spruce-pine-fir, but I can’t see a performance reason for not allowing this substitution.

(4) Covering all aspects of the approach: Table R703.15.2 gives clear guidance on every aspect of spacing, attachment, fasteners, and maximum sheathing thickness, including the required compressive strength of the rigid insulation, even though the table is titled for foam plastic sheathing; see footnote (c).

Just my cut: If there are no furring strips, I find that attaching cladding through just about any thickness of rigid insulation unnecessarily difficult; far better to attach the furring strips through the continuous insulation layer to the underlying framing, and then attach the cladding to the furring.

A free-draining and convective-drying 3/4-inch gap is needed for just about any wall cladding in an area like Herndon, Virginia, with 42 inches on average of rain a year. But with an OSB-based cladding like LP SmartSide, it’s especially important.


Tags: , , ,

Image Credits:

  1. Image #1: Louisiana-Pacific Corp.
  2. Images #2 and #3: International Code Council

1.
Jul 10, 2017 11:46 AM ET

Helpful?
by Malcolm Taylor

I wonder if the engineers at LP ever spend any time on sites or in a lumberyard. Try going to the contractor sales desk and asking the specific gravity of the wood they stock. Installation guides that rely on that sort of requirement are why builders seem so resistant to changing the way they do things.


2.
Jul 10, 2017 12:59 PM ET

Edited Jul 10, 2017 12:59 PM ET.

Specific Gravity of Solid Sawn Lumber or panel products
by Rachel Wagner

We're also dealing with this issue in our office. It isn't easy to find southern pine here in northern MN. We found documentation, linked here, that lists the specific gravity of many hard and soft woods, though they make no mention of moisture content.
http://www.wood.tcaup.umich.edu/exercises/SpecGrav.pdf

https://www.cecalc.com/WoodDesign/Graphics/SpecificGravityValues.pdf

I did find some documentation of the specific gravity of plywood and OSB. Seems to me one could specify plywood or OSB strips with a specific gravity matching LP's requirement. We recently specified 3/4" southern pine plywood cut into 3 1/2" strips@ 16" O.C., with siding fastened with rink shank nails, for our furring on a project with LP SmartSide.

Here's the documentation on specific gravity of plywood and OSB:

https://www.apawood.org/Data/Sites/1/documents/technicalresearch/paper-2...


3.
Jul 10, 2017 9:48 PM ET

Rachel
by Malcolm Taylor

I can't understand why they didn't just say: these are the three commonly available materials that builders typically use as furring, and these are the thicknesses we need them to be.

I wonder what the specific gravity is on Mars?


4.
Jul 11, 2017 2:21 PM ET

What a bizarre chart in the
by Dave De C

What a bizarre chart in the second attachment.
For siding at 11psf @ 16" o.c. it considers a No. 10 screw @ 1" penetration as equivalent to a 1/4" lag screw with 1.5" penetration.

This all smacks of information that was assembled without any particular science behind it. "We guessed at a bunch of stuff and put a table together". Seems like these should be plots or lookup tables instead of one catch-all table.


5.
Jul 12, 2017 7:36 PM ET

Peter Yost's Recommendation
by Scott Wilson

I am curious about the recommendation made by GBA technical director Peter Yost when he says: "far better to attach furring to framing, then cladding to furring". Wouldn't this method create a lot of thermal breaks in the insulation layer applied to the exterior wall?

For example, if you were using a layer of 1.5" thick Roxul Comfortboards over your exterior wall sheathing then I'm assuming that you would also need 1.5" thick furring strips attached directly through the sheathing to each wall stud in order to attach the cladding. The Roxul panels would have to sit in between the furring strips. This method might make attaching the cladding easier but it seems to defeat the purpose of having a continuous exterior insulation layer.


6.
Jul 12, 2017 8:15 PM ET

Increase In Wall Thickness
by Gary Young

I did this to our house when we replaced the siding a few years ago. We put 2 X 4 furring studs laid flat over the foam and attached to the wall studs with 1.5 inch foam between the furring studs, rain screen over everything, and finally the LP siding. This only increases the wall thickness 3/4 inch vs the furring strips William Costello was planning to use and would only require increasing the interior window sill by 3/4 inch.


7.
Jul 12, 2017 9:28 PM ET

Scott
by Malcolm Taylor

I think what Peter meant was it is easier to nail the cladding to furring, rather than right through the exterior insulation to the framing behind. At what thickness of exterior insulation this becomes true for is an open question which comes up here quite often.

I don't think he was advocating applying the furring directly to the sheathing, but rather on top of the exterior insulation, so there would only be the nominal thermal bridges of the fasteners.


8.
Jul 13, 2017 5:04 AM ET

What about SIP's? Is there
by dangrs1

What about SIP's? Is there siding you can put on them and follow the manufacturers directions?


9.
Jul 13, 2017 5:29 AM ET

Edited Jul 13, 2017 5:30 AM ET.

Response to Dangrs 1
by Martin Holladay

Dangers,
Of course there are many types of siding that can be installed on SIPs. SIP homes are built every day, and every single SIP home has siding.

If you have any doubts about a particular type of siding, contact (a) the SIP manufacturer and (b) the siding manufacturer to verify that the products will work.

Most SIPs have OSB facings, and OSB is subject to rot if it stays wet for a long enough time. That's why most experts emphasize the importance of including a rainscreen gap between SIP walls and siding. For more information, see All About Rainscreens.


10.
Jul 13, 2017 5:45 AM ET

Response to Scott Wilson (Comment #5)
by Martin Holladay

Scott,
Thanks for your comments. Malcolm Taylor's response (Comment #7) was correct. I have edited Peter Yost's advice to remove any ambiguity.


11.
Jul 14, 2017 7:04 PM ET

Still Not Clear
by Scott Wilson

Even though Peter Yost’s comments have been edited it’s still not clear what he is concerned about. In his initial observation he states: “I find attaching cladding through just about any thickness of rigid insulation unnecessarily difficult”.

To me this implies that he is referring to people having to nail the cladding through the furring strip, then through the rigid insulation layer, the sheathing layer and on into the studs. That would require a nail between 4-6” (depending on the thickness of the rigid insulation).

His solution seems to be that people should be focusing on first anchoring the furring strip through the rigid insulation and sheathing into the stud with one nail and then using a much shorter nail or screw to attach the cladding to the furring strip.

If that is his intent then the issue becomes one of “what length and type of nail should be used for each part of the process” and perhaps that could be discussed.


12.
Jul 14, 2017 9:27 PM ET

Edited Jul 14, 2017 9:30 PM ET.

Scott
by Malcolm Taylor

What Peter is saying is that not using furring, and instead just trying to secure the cladding though the exterior insulation into the studs underneath is "unnecessarily difficult".

The discussion of how to secure furring through exterior insulation has been the subject of a lot of threads here - and a previous blog.

http://www.greenbuildingadvisor.com/blogs/dept/musings/fastening-furring...


13.
Jul 15, 2017 5:48 AM ET

Response to Scott Wilson (Comment #11) and Malcolm Taylor
by Martin Holladay

Once again, Malcolm has it right. And once again, I have edited one of Peter Yost's sentences in an attempt to remove any possible ambiguity.


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